He is a contemporary bourgeois democratic revolutionist. With school name Wen, register name Deming, pseudonym Rixin, later in his life Yixian. Alias:Zhongshan in Japan when involved in anti-Qing Dynasty revolution: Nakayama Sha. He was born in Xiangshan, Guangdong (Zhongshan, Guangdong today).Since Guangxu Year 4th (1878), he had been studying in Honolulu, Hong Kong and Guangzhou etc. At Guagnxu Year 20th (1894), establishing Xingzhou Association. At Guangxu Year 31st (1905), he established China Tung-meng Hui in Tokyo combining Hua Xing Hui and Guang Fu Hui etc, who was elected as premier, proposing the theory of Three Principles of the People. Hereafter, he actively developed domestic revolution organizations, and initiated many armed revolts against Qing government. August 19th, Xuantong Year 3(October 10th, 1911), he led and initiated Wuchang Revolt which was responded by various provinces. On November 10th (December 29th), the representatives from 17 provinces elected him as temporary president of Republic of China. January 1st, 1912, he arrived at Nanjing, and sworn into office officially, and established Nanjing temporary government and temporary senate. Due to strong pressure from the imperialism and feudalism and incompetence of revolution party itself, he was forced to propose to resign temporary president and gave the office to Yuan Shikai on February 13th, and dismissed officially on April 1st. During his office, he signed and issued totally over 100 documents, and issued over 30 documents involving of political reform and social reform, and personally presided and constituted Temporary Law of Republic of China, trying his best efforts for newborn revolution regime. As for Nanjing, he was willing to construct it into an Jianghai style harbor city that was open to outside world, and proposed the scheme of constructing railway network centering Nanjing and developing industry and mining in Nanjing. In 1913, he initiated “secondary revolution” against Yuan Shikai, and exiled to Japan after its failure, and established Revolutionary Party of China. In 1917, he initiated Law-protecting Movement in Guangdong. In 1919, he reorganized Revolutionary Party of China into Kuomintang of China. In the first meeting of Kuomintang held on January,1924, he presided and established Three Great Policies of alliance with Russia, cooperation with the Communist Party and assistance to peasants and workers, developing old Three Principles of the People into new Three Principles of the People. March, next year, he died in Beijing due to disease. In 1929, whose coffin was transferred into Yat-sen Tomb, South Slope, Zhongmao Peak, Cijin Mountain. Whose posthumous works include Florilegium of Sun Yat-sen and Collected Edition of Sun Yat-sen etc..
He is a modern educator. Whose alias is Heqing, styled Jiemin, born in Shaoxing, Zhejiang. He was Jinshi in Guangxu 18th (1892), whose position was an editor of Imperial Hanlin Academy. Hereafter, he came back to South China after quitting, taking the positions as supervisor of Zhongxi Academy, dean of Sheng County Shanshan Academy, general educator of Shanghai Nanyang College Special Class, and Chairman of China Education Association etc. one after another. In Guangxu Year 31st (1905), he joined Tung-meng Hui. In Guangxu 33rd (1907), he went to Universit？t Leipzig of Germany to study the philosophy, psychology and the history of fine arts etc. On January, 1912, he served as chief of Nanjing Temporary Government of Republic of China, criticizing feudal education system, proposing that the education should start from making happiness of this life, claiming to adopt western education system, and implementing comprehensive reform. During his office, he presided and constituted liberal education method, and changed academy into school, and the supervisors and chiefs were collectively called as president; he abolished the respect of Confucius and reading classics, and executed the system that the male and female pupils studied together in the same school etc. He set Society Education Department under Ministry of Education, which was responsible for adults’ education and remediation education, moreover, he presided and held national temporary education meeting that passed various education laws. In 1917, he served as the president of Peking University, advocating academic freedom, claiming the inclusiveness of both old and new thoughts, actively supporting the New Culture Movement. In 1924, he was elected as alternate central supervision committee member of Kuomintang. In 1927, he served as the dean of Kuomintang Government University. During his office, he presided and held the first national education meeting, and constituted a series of education ordinances and decrees. On August, next year, he changed as the dean of National Central Research Institute, concurrent presidents and deans of many high education universities including Jiaotong University, Sino-French University and National Xihu Arts Academy etc. During his office, he organized the preparation of various working rules of Central Research Institute, established scientific research management system, and established a batch of research institutes of nature, humanities and social science etc one after another, laying foundation for China’s modern scientific research. After The September 18th Incident in 1931, he actively advocated against Japan, next year, he organized China League for Civil Rights. In the same year, he also served as the head of Reorganization Committee of Central University, contributing more to the reorganization of Central University. During anti-Japanese war, he rushed for anti-Japanese war and China salvation, trying to promote the cooperation between Kuomintang and CPC. Hereafter, he died in Hong Kong due to disease. Whose masterpieces were 7 volumes of Collected Edition of Cai Yuanpei.
He was a minister of Qing Dynasty, chief of Westernization Group. Whose alias is Jigao, another name of Pucun, born in Xiangyin, Hunan. He was Jurun In Daoguang 12th (1832). Since Xianfeng 2nd (1852), he joined the government of Hunan provincial governor Zhang Liangji and Luo Bingzhang one after another, contributing policies and measures for resisting Taiping army. In Xianfeng 10th (1860), he received orders to class IV Jingtang to join Zeng Guofan for managing the army, and recruited 5000 persons to form Jinjun army, who went to Jiangxi and Wannan to fight with Taiping army. In Tongzhi 1st (1862), he served as Zhejiang provincial governor. Next year, he was promoted to governor-general of Fujian&Zhejiang. Hereafter, he served as governor-general of Shaanxi and Gansu and military minister, grand minister of state one after another, during which he also served as imperial inspector minister concurrently for many times, repressing the remaining of Taiping army, Nianjun army and Hui army, and led the army to suppress Muhammad Yaqub Bek and reclaimed Urumchi and Zhen (today’s Hetian) etc, stopping Russian and UK’s aggression to Xinjiang. In Guangxu 8th (1882), he was transferred as governor-general of Liangjiang & Nanyang trade minister. During his office, Zuo Zongtang focused on water conservancy, building roads and bridges etc. during the first year of his office; he presided and built the first steamboat dock of Nanjing, and constituted the corresponding regulations of steamboat passenger transportation dock. Next year, he built water conservancy of Chishan Lake. This lake is located above Nanjing, due to failure of water conservancy; various counties in Nanjing would suffer once mountain flood burst out. Zuo Zongtang went to investigate and plan personally, and transferred 30 camps of Xiang army and Huai army to evacuate 10 kilometers of watercourse, and built Nanjing Tongji gateway to inject water and flush the waste. Consequently, he transferred the army to Pukou, initiating the construction of water conservancy in Zhujiashan, which was completed in two years, and flood-diversion channel was chiseled from Chuhe River to Yangtse River---Zhujiashan River, eliminating water disaster arising from hundreds of thousands of hectares of farm in northwest Nanjing and some parts of Anhui. In addition, he also actively supported anti-French struggle by Black Flag Army led by Liu Yongfu. On the one hand, he transported a great deal of ordnance and ammo to Guangxi, Yunnan from Nanjing to help various armies in the borders and Black Flag army; On the other hand, he proposed imperial court to establish Gejingdingbian army that actively cooperated with anti-French struggle by Black Flag Army etc.. In Guangxu 10th (1884), he was off the office, and went to Fujian to inspect the military affairs, and died in Fuzhou next year. He was presented with Taifu, after-death name Wenxiang. He wrote Collected Edition of Zuo Wenxiang.
Whose alias is Xiangtao, Xiaoda, styled Yigong, Wujingjushi. He was born in Nanpi, Zhili (which is part of Hebei today). He was a minister of Qing Dynasty, chief of Westernization Group. In Tongzhi 2nd (1863), he won the third place Jinshi(Tanhua), granted with the editor of Hanlin Academy. In Tongzhi 6th, he served as deputy examiner of Zhejiang county examination and study administer of Hubei. He served as grand secretariat reader-in-waiting of Hanlin Academy and Studying Hanlin Academician etc one after another. In Guangxu 10th (1884) when Sino-French war burst out, he was promoted to governor-general of Liangguang from Shanxi governor, using old minister Feng Zicai to beat back French aggression army in the border of Guangxi. He proposed to organize westernized industries, being one of heads of Westernization Group. After he was transferred as governor-general of Huguang, he launched Hanyang Ironworks and Hubei Firearm Factory, establishing four departments including weaving, spinning, filature and manufacture, and prepared and built Luhan(from Lugouqiao Bridge to Hankou) railway, and competed with Li Hongzhang. During reform movement launched by the bourgeois, he integrated various theories, and issued China’s Only Hope in Guangxu 24th, which systematically described the thoughts of “westernizing Chinese system”, becoming the representative masterpiece for resisting reform thought. He proposed the protest of “old theory taken as system, new theory as use”, in order to safeguard feudal system and opposed the reform. After the publication, this book was recognized by Cixi Group, who issued the order to public it nationwide, asking the governors and education commissioners in various provinces to issue extensively, whose true purpose was to persuade correcting the reputation and suppressing the opinions. In Guangxu 27th when eight power allied forces aggressed Beijing, under the planning of imperialism, he participated into “Southeast Mutual Protection” (on June, 1900, deputy consul general of UK in Shanghai instigated comprador Sheng Huaixuan to combine governor-general of Liangjiang Liu Kunyi and governor-general of Huguang Zhang Zhidong etc, consulted with various consuls in Shanghai about constituting Southeast Protection Agreement, which stated that Shanghai International Settlement was protected by various countries, and Yangtse River was protected by various provincial governor-generals from inland of Suhang, destroying anti-imperialism struggle of Yi He Tuan), suppressing anti-westernization struggle of Lianghu and established the army to fight together with Tang Caichang. In Guangxu 21st (1895), Zhang Zhidong served as governor-general of Liangjiang by representing Zhang Zhidong. In Guangxu 28th, after Liu Kunyi died in Guangxu 28th, he served as inspection commercial minister & governor-general of Liangjiang. He agreed with the scenario of Liu Kunyi etc that firstly established normal universities. January 8th (lunar calendar) nest year, he raised the Proposal of Establishing Sanjing Normal University. After the approval, he recruited Yang Jingui as the inspector of the university. He also consulted and determined the costs and student sources of the university with relevant aspects personally. In order to plan construction size of the university and arrange teaching contents, he also sent the personnel to Japan for visiting and studying, and establishing Sanjiang Normal Study Affairs Department in Nanjing. On September, Guangxu 29th, Sanjiang Normal University opened. This university is the first higher education normal university in Nanjing, as well as one of higher education normal universities that were established earliest in China. In Guangxu 33rd, Zhang Zhidong left Nanjing and transferred as grand minister of state, responsible for study department. In Xuantong 1st(1909), he served as the president of recording house. On August, Xuantong 1st(1909), Zhang Zhidong died of disease in Beijing, with 72 years’ old. he was granted with name of after-death Wenxiang. He wrote Collected Edition of Zhang Wenxiang.
He was a minister of Qing dynasty and head of Xiang army. Whose original name was Zicheng, alias Bohan, styled Disheng, born in Baiyangping, Xiangxiang, Hunan (today’s Shuangfeng, Hunan). In Daoguang 18th (1838), he won Jinshi, and joined Hanlin Academy. He was promoted as inspector of Hanlin Academy, secretary of the Grand Secretariat, secretary of courtesy department, and secretaries of military department, industry department, crime department and official department. He learned rationality theory from Tang Jian and Wo Ren. By the end of Xianfeng 2nd (in the beginning of 1853), he organized group exercise with the identity of current secretary, and then expanded into Xiang army, which became the main force to suppress Tai Ping Heaven. In Xianfeng 10th (1860), he was promoted as governor-general of Liangjiang, and inspected and managed military affairs of Jiangnan with the identity of imperial inspector minister, advocating suppressing the rebellion with foreign army. In Tongzhi 1st (1862), plus the title of coordinated grand secretary, and sent Li Hongzhang to Shanghai, and sent Zuo Zongtang to Zhejiang, and attacked Tai Ping army together with British Changsheng army and French Changjie army, and sent its younger brother Zeng Guoquan to exclusively circled Tianjing(Nanjing today). On July, Tongzhi 3rd (1864), Tainjing was fallen. Due to his contribution, Zeng Guofan was granted with the title of tutor to crown prince, awarded as class 1 marquess. Consequently, Xiang army was removed; he resumed Jiangnan county examination, and administered official affairs, especially focusing on salt business. In Tongzhi 4th(1865), he received the order to suppress Nian army, then returned without any contribution, still served as governor-general of Liangjiang. In Tongzhi 7th (1868), he was granted as Wuying Palace grand secretary, transferred as governor-general of Zhili. On September of the same year, he returned as governor-general of Liangjiang. During two years when he served as governor-general of Liangjiang, he established military industries including Shanghai Jiangnan Manufacturer and Fujian Mawei Dockyard etc together with Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtant, also led to propose selecting the youth to study overseas, and initiated the first activity of studying overseas supported by the government. On March, Tongzhi 11th (1872), he died of disease in Nanjing. He was presented as Taifu, with after-death name of Wenzheng. He wrote Completed Edition of Zeng Wenzheng.
He was a thinker and writer by the end of Qing Dynasty. Whose another name is Gongzuo, alias Seren, styled Dingan, born in Renhe, Zhejiang( Hanghzou today). He won Jin Shi in Daoguang 9th (1829), he served as secretary in the grand secretariat and director of consultation office of courtesy department. He was talented when young, learned from grandfather-in-law Duan Yucai in his earlier age. Hereafter, he advocated universal practice theory together with Lin Zexu and Wei Yuan etc, opposing trivial textual research out of reality and Song-Ming rationality talking about personality, criticizing the blackness and corruption of the ending of feudalism, pointing out that the source of social chaos lied in the gap between the rich and the poor, asking to reform imperial examination system, collecting the talents of universal practice in many aspects. In the later stage, influenced by Tiantaizong of Buddhism, he proposed the perspective of “with/without kindness” “kindness and evilness comes later”. In Jiaqing 20th (1815), he firstly went to Jiangning, without smooth tour, leaving the regret that “ancient scenarios of six dynasties in my dreams, I don’t have luck to tour in Qinhuai” in Sihai Poem. In Daoguang 19th (1839), he resigned and went to South, served as the lecturers in Ziyang college etcin Zhejiang. In Daoguang 20th (1840), he went to Jiangning again, and lived in Xiaoguci, Qingxi(by the bank of Qingxi at northeast of Huaiqing bridge), visited his friends, and toured the resorts, and left may poems. During which, Opium War burst out, British aggressors were expanding everywhere, Gong Zizhen concerned about the country, and make the sigh of “mainland falling” in Taicheng Road. In Daoguang 21st (1841), he died in Danyang Yunyang College. In literature, he advocated the theory of “respecting the feeling”, and proposing the integration between the poet and the poem. His poems have his unique style with delicate and magnificent tone, which is called Gong Style. He wrote Dingan Collection, known as Completed Edition of Gong Zizhen today.
He was a minister of Qing Dynasty, chief of Westernization Group. Whose alias is Shaoquan, born in Hefei, Anhui. He won Jin Shi in Daoguang 27th (1847). In Xianfeng 3rd (1853), he received the order to go back his birth place to manage group exercise to resist Tai Ping Army. In the winter, Xianfeng 8th (1858), he joined the government led by Zeng Guofan for managing camp affairs. In Xianfeng 11th(1861), he organized and exercised Huai Army, and transferred to Shanghai as governor-general of Shanghai next year. in Tongzhi 4th(1865), Zeng Guofan went to Shandong to suppress Nian Army, Li Hongzhang acted as the deputy governor-general of Liangjiang. He moved foreign cannon bureau that he established in Suzhou to Nanjing, and built factory in the old remains of Xitian temple outside south gate, which was called Jinling Machine Manufacturer. He ordered machines overseas and employed foreign technicians as teachers, and manufacturing emplacement, gate fire, wheel turntable, ammo boxes and copper nut etc. which was the biggest contemporary machine factory in Jiangsu province at that time. Meanwhile, he also established powder bureau and ordnance office etc. In the same year, he ordered Jiangning governor Tu Zongying to move Jiangning College originally built in the foot of Jimingshan to Chaotiangong palace, and proposed to imperial court to establish Jiangning treasure collection book bureau in Nanjing, responsible for printing the books of literature and history etc. By the end of Tongzhi 5th (1866), he served as imperial inspector minister after Zeng Guofan, dedicating to elimination of Nian Army. In Tongzhi 9th (1870), he served as governor-general of Zhili and Beiyang Commerce Minister, comprehensively responsible for the diplomacy, military affairs and economy of Qing government. Hereafter, he was granted with Grand Secretary of Wuying Palace and Grand Secretary of Wenhua Palace. As the head of late-Qing westernization movement, he targeted at “self-strength” and “seeking fortune”, establishing a series of westernization industries in the forms of official-inspection and businessmen-operation” in the late 19th century. Meanwhile, he procured ammo and warships with customs, and expanded the strength of Huai Army and established Beiyang Navy. However, he proposed to compromise in foreign relationships, and signed a series of unequal treaties including Maguan Treaty etc by representing Qing government with various powers. He wrote Completed Edition of Li Wenzhong.
Fu Baoshi (formerly known: Changsheng; Courtesy name: Ruilin; art name: Baoshizhai Owner) (1904-1965) was a painter born in Nanchang, Jiangxi whose ancestors residence can trace to Xinyu County, Jiangxi province (now City Xinyu). When he was 7 –year old, he was admitted into the home school of Yu family as a guest student, but soon he dropped out, and wandered around lettering shops and picture framing stalls on the street. He started to learn seal engraving by using used knives and rubbles, and also to imitate wall paintings of the picture framing shops. In the sixth year of ROC (1917), he was funded by neighborhood and admitted to a primary school, an affiliate of the Jiangxi First Normal School, and renamed himself as Ruilin. Upon graduated in the eighth year of the ROC (1919), he was admitted to the Arts Department of Jiangxi First Normal School, where he enjoyed seal engraving and had imitated the seal of Zhao Zhiqian, an imitation that was of so great resemblance that he derived appreciation from the School Principal. In the twelfth year of the ROC (1923), he graduated and was appointed by Jiangxi First Normal School to teach as a teacher in its affiliated Preparatory School; then he served as an art teacher at the Senior High section of the Jiangxi First Middle School. Thereafter he resigned and went to Jingdezhen Ceramics Factory, engaging in art and design. In the twentieth year of the ROC (1931), he got 10 books of the "Collection of Impressions of Seals by Huang Mufu", he carefully kept it and learned the rigorousness and preciseness style from the books. In the same year his book "Brief History of Development of Chinese Painting" was published by Shanghai Nanjing Bookstore. In Match of the 22nd year of the ROC (1933), he was sent to Japan by Jiangxi Government to study in the name of investigation of Japanese ceramics culture, where he studied art history, crafts and sculpture at the Research Department of the Tokyo Imperial Oriental Art School. In May the 23rd year (1934), he held an exhibition of calligraphy and carving in Tokyo, Japan, which featured the paintings of "Tao Yuanming Buying Wine" and "Qutang Gorge" with a considerable influence. Meanwhile, he translated the book of the "Paintings in Tang and Song Dynasties” by a Japanese Scholar Seigo Nakao and the book “Wang Moji” by Meize Hexuan, and edited the "Chronology of Monk Kugua." On June 24 of the 24th year (1935), he returned home due to his mother critical illness.
In the summer of the 24th year of the ROC (1935), Fu Baoshi came to Nanjing, and was appointed by Xu Beihong a lecturer at the Department of Art History of the Central University. After the Songhu War broke out on August 13th 1937, he went alone to Xuancheng, Anhui, where he enjoyed a taste of the landscape scenery of Xuancheng which was highly appreciated by Huangshan school scholars Mei Qing, Shi Tao and others of the early Qing Dynasty, and made multiple drawings. Thereafter he headed to Nanchang, and in the Summer of the 28th years (1939) moved to Chongqing with his family. Firstly he served as a secretary at the third section of the Political Department of the Military Committee which was headed by Guo Moruo. Soon after the reorganization of the third section, he left and once again served as professor at the Art Department of the Central University (Chongqing), and in addition, accepted the appointment by Principal Mr. Chen Zhifo of the National Art School as Secretary to the Principal and Professor of the Art history. Since September of the 31st year (1942), he successively has held personal exhibitions in Chongqing, Chengdu, Kunming and other places.
In the October of the 35th year (1946), Fu Baoshi moved back to Nanjing following with the Central University. In the 36th year (1949), he once travelled to Shanghai, Suzhou, Hangzhou, and Nanchang, and held many painting exhibitions. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, he was back to Nanjing again serving as a professor at the Department of Fine Arts of the Central University. In August 1952 he was Professor at the Art Department of Nanjing Normal University, and was elected to the Standing Committee of Nanjing Literary Federation, and was appointed director and vice chairman of the Preparatory Committee which was aimed to establish Jiangsu Branch of China Artists Association. In terms of academic activities, he withstood the pressure to repeal the teaching of Chinese painting, leaving the Fine Arts Department of the Nanjing Normal University intact and becoming the only institution of higher learning of traditional painting teachings in China. In 1957, he was the director of the Preparatory Office for establishing Jiangsu Traditional Chinese Painting Academy (he became the Dean later). In May of the same year, he led Chinese Artists delegation to visit Eastern Europe. Since 1956, he was a member of the Second CPPCC National Committee and the Third National People's Congress, vice chairman of the Jiangsu branch of the China Artist Association, and Vice Chairman of China Artists Association, and member of the National Literary Federation. In July 1959, he in cooperation with Guan Shanyue in Beijing, drew the huge picture "A Land so Beautiful" which is decorated in the Great Hall and was titled by Chairman Mao Zedong. In September 1960, he led the painters of Jiangsu Province to practice sketching in fields, his footprints travelling over a range of "twenty-three thousand kilometers" and covering 10 more cities in six provinces, and many famous mountains and rivers are all themes of his painting works. After returning, he held exhibitions, and published the painting collection of the "New Look of Mountains and Rivers". In June 1961 he went to Northeast for sketching. In general, Mr. Fu is good at painting figures and landscapes (especially good at landscapes painting), and also good at calligraphy and seal cutting.
September 27, 1965, Fu Baoshi died in Nanjing at 61 years old. In his life, he created more than 2,000 pieces of Chinese paintings, of which, the surviving representative works are "Tens of Thousands of Poles in the Rain and Smoke", "Whistling and Pattering of Evening Rain," " Listen the Waterfall", "Cottage in Dadi Mt", "Beauties in Trip", " Xiling Gorge", "To Picture the Great Country Carefully", "Zhongshan Mausoleum "etc.. His writings include the "Overview of the Origin and Development of National Paintings", "Brief History of Development of Chinese Painting", "Chronology of Chinese Art", and the "Chronicle of Monk Shitao". There are several dozen of his art collections and paintings series that were published.
Li Siguang (1889 - 1971) is a Modern geologist. Formerly known as Li Zhongkui, he is Mongolian nationality from Huanggang, Hubei. In 1913 he was admitted to the University of Birmingham, studying mining science, later transferred to the Geology Department and earned a master's degree. In 1920 he returned back, and became a professor and dean at the Department of Geology, Peking University. In 1927, he was invited by the president of Academia Sinica, Cai Yuanpei, to Nanjing to preside over the construction of the Institute of Geology and then became the director of the institution. He personally advocated and participated in the geological studies of Ningzhen Mountain, and published the book "Geology of Ningzhen Mountain" in 1935 which has become a model for regional geological surveys and is with a great reference value. After the war against Japanese troops broke out, he was persistent to the scientific study of geology and paleontology after he led the crew of the Institute of Geology to relocate to the inland after treking through thousands of kilometers. In 1947 he received a doctorate of philosophy from the University of Oslo, Norway, and in the following year, was elected to the Academia Sinica.
In 1949, he represented China to attend the eighteenth International Geological Congress held in London, in which he made ？？a presentation of the academic report titled the "Origin of Neocathaysia Sea", the first one of the kinds that applied the theory of geo-mechanics he created, and has aroused strong repercussions. During being abroad, he wrote to several researchers of the Institute of Geology, encouraging them to stay at Nanjing, and he himself also overcame many obstacles to return home in 1950. Successively, he served as minister of the Ministry of Geology, vice president of Chinese Academy of Sciences, director of the Institute of Paleontology within the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and director of the Institute of Geomechanics. He was elected vice chairman of the CPPCC National Committee. In 1958, he joined the Chinese Communist Party. Mr. Li Siguang has long been engaged in paleontology, Quaternary glacial science and geological mechanics research, and made outstanding achievements in identification of paleontology fossils, finding of the Quaternary glacier in China, and creation of geo-mechanics. He used the theory of geo-mechanics theory, to analyze the features of the geological structure of China, and refuted the argument of "China Lean on Oil". Under the guidance of his theory, Daqing, Shengli, Dagang and other large oil fields have been discovered after the liberation of the country that has rewritten the Chinese oil history. Major works of Li includes "The Main Reason behind the Changes in the Earth's Surface," "Aeshnidae in Northern China", "China Geology", "A Introduction to Geomechanics ", and "Astronomy, Geology, and Paleontology".
Su Yu (Courtesy name: Yu’ren; Dong Nationality) (1907-1984) is a senior general of the People's Liberation Army from Huitong, Hunan. In the 15th year of the ROC (1926), he joined the Chinese Communist Youth League when he studied at the second Provincial Normal School, Changde. In the 16th year of the ROC (1927), he became a member of the Chinese Communist Party; in the same year he participated in the Nanchang Uprising and Hunan Uprising, and then with Zhu De and Chen Yi moved to Jinggangshan after series of fights in many places. Successively, he was commissioned as company commander, battalion commander, detachment commander and the sixtieth division commander of the twelfth army of the Red Army; chief of staff of the Fourth Army of the Red Army; and chief of staff of the eleventh Legion of the Red Army, Seventh Legion of the Red Army and the Tenth Legion of the Red Army. In the 23rd year of ROC (1934), he participated in the northward-advanced Anti-Japanese Army. In the following year, he was ordered to go to the south of Zhejiang and the Fujian & Zhejiang border to carry out guerrilla war, as commander of the South Zhejiang Advancing Region and Commander of Fujian-Zhejiang military Region. After the war anti-Japanese broke out, he successively served as deputy commander of the Second Detachment of the New Fourth Army, commander and political commissar of First Division, commander and political commissar of the Mid-Jiangsu military region, commander of the Zhejiang-Jiangsu military region, and party secretary of the Jiangsu-Zhejiang Military Region. He was elected to the Seventh CPC Central Committee as an alternate member. Since the 35th year of the ROC (1946), he successively served as deputy commander of the Central-China Military Region, Commander of the Central China Field Army, and Acting Commander and Acting political commissar of the East China Field Army, and deputy commander of the Third Field Army. He had commanded the mid-Jiangsu campaign, assisted Chen Yi in the campaigns of Subei, Lunan, Laiwu, and Menglianggu, and participated in the command of the Battles of Jinan, Huaihai, Cross-the Yangtze River and Shanghai.
Since Nanjing liberation, Su Yu was appointed deputy director and director of the Nanjing Military Control Commission. In September 1949, he was the Secretary of Nanjing Municipal CPC Committee. Since May 1950, he was successively appointed as deputy Chief of Staff and Chief of Staff of the People's Liberation Army, Deputy Minister of Defense, member of the Standing Committee of the Central Military Commission, vice president and the first political commissar of the Military Science Academy. In 1955 he was awarded the military rank of Senior General. He is also a member of the eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh CPC Central Committee; a member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Central Advisory Commission; and a member of the Standing Committee of the third and fourth National People's Congress, and vice chairman of the Fifth National People's Congress. On February 5, 1984, Mr. Su Yu died in Beijing at the age of 77. He was author of the papers and war memoirs such as the "Staff Work in Wartimes" and "An Exploration of Several Problems in the Early Responses to Future Anti- aggression Warfare". His publication is "Su Yu Anthology”.
Lu Xun (Formerly: Zhou Shuren; Courtesy name: Yu Cai) (1881 - 1936) is a modern writer, thinker and revolutionist from a dilapidated landlord family from Shaoxing, Zhejiang. In the 24th year of Guangxu Era (1898), he went to study at the free-charged Turbine Class of Jiangnan Naval Academy due to his family hardship; at the same year he was admitted to the Mineral & Railway School (an attachment to the Jiangnan Army School) where, he started being influenced by the Western ideas of democracy and modern natural science promoted by reformists and bourgeois. He studied hard with a keen on new knowledge of west learning, and was the only student who won the gold medal. In the Twenty-eighth year of Guangxu era (1902), he graduated with honors, and soon went to study in Japan. At the beginning, he studied the discipline of medicine, but soon after he was dedicated to the efforts of national character transformation. In the first year of Xuantong era (1909) he returned home country and taught in Hangzhou and Shaoxing. After the Revolution of Xinhai (1911), he was invited by Cai Yuanpei, then Minister of Education of the interim government, to work as a staff in the Ministry of Education, Nanjing. Besides of the job things, he was destined to come to the Longfanli Jiangnan Library for reading everything, particularly focusing on studying of Chinese classical literature and legends, and copying a large number of ancient materials, that laid a solid foundation for his classical literature research later. Later he was appointed as staff and inspector of the Ministry of Education, meanwhile he served as a teacher of the Beijing University and of Peking Women Normal University.
During the New Culture Movement, he exalted science and democracy, while lashed out the feudal ethics and feudal ethical systems and fought against a variety of retro backward feudal thoughts, becoming a commanding figure in the New Culture Movement. After the counter-revolutionary coup on April 12th 1927, he moved to Shanghai. Since 1930 onwards, he successively has participated in progressive groups such as the Major League of Freedom Movement and the Union of Chinese Leftist Writers, fighting unremittingly against the KMT hack writers and literati. In 1936, he died in Shanghai. The involvement of Lu Xu with literature was for nearly 30 years, during which he wrote a total of 29 works and more than 2.50 million words, covering broad areas of fiction, prose, essays, and classical literature studies. His collection of short stories of "The Scream (Call to Arms, 呐喊)" and "Wandering（彷徨）", essays of "Dawn Blossoms Plucked at Dusk（朝花夕拾）", prose poems of the "Wild Grass（野草）", and miscellaneous works of the "Graves（坟）", "Hot Wind（热风）", "Huagai Collection（华盖集）" , "Eryi Collection（而已集）" , "Sanxian Collection（三闲集）""Essay at Qiejie Pavilion (且介亭杂文)", etc., are all classics in the history of Chinese literature and world literature. His book of classical literature monograph "A Brief History of Chinese Fiction" and "An Outline of the Chinese Literature History" are recognized as a model by academia with its unique perspectives and insightful discourse. There are many versions of "Luxun Complete Works" series published by publishing houses.
Yang Tingbao (Courtesy Name: Runhui; 1901 - 1982) is a modern architect from Nanyang, Henan. In 1921 he graduated from Tsinghua School, at the same year went to the Department of Architecture, University of Pennsylvania to study and received a master's degree. After returning home in 1927, he served as an Architect of Tianjin Kitai Architectural Design Office, and was one of the leading persons in charge of the architectural design. In 1930s, he has presided over the planning of renovations of the Beijing Temple of Heaven, Ziguangge, Xizhimen Towers and other ancient buildings, as well as the overall design of buildings of Tsinghua University and many other universities and colleges. The buildings of Academia Sinica office, the KMT Central Commission office, the KMT Party History Museum, the Central News Agency, the Central Hospital, the Central Stadium, Music Station of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Xiaguan Station, Nanjing Dahua Cinema and other large buildings are also designed by his hands.
Since 1940, he served as professor at the Architecture Department of the Central University. After the founding of new China, he served as director of the Department of Architecture of, and vice president of, the Nanjing Engineering College, and director of the Architecture Research Institute. He was elected vice chairman and Chairman of the Architectural Society of China, vice president of the International Union of Architects, honorary chairman of Jiangsu Civil Engineering Architectural Society, vice chairman of Jiangsu Provincial CPPCC, and vice governor of Jiangsu. In the meantime, he presided over the expansion plan of Tiananmen Square, participated in the program design for People's Heroes Monument, Great Hall, Chairman Mao Memorial Hall and other major projects, presided over and participated in the designs of Yuhuatai Martyrs Mausoleum, Bridge Tower of Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, Nanjing Aviation Terminal, Nanjing Wutaishan Stadium, and Nanjing Dingshan Hotel. He has thorough Chinese and Western knowledge, and is well versed in classical Chinese architectural techniques and modern west architecture styles. When he was in designing, he was an architect who was with a style of robustness, rigorousness and generousness, used inclusive knowledge as he made references to various experts, and particularly paid attention to local conditions and national conditions. Throughout his life, he designed more than 100 items of Architectural works, contributing greatly in creating Chinese characteristic buildings. His book "Collection of Tingbao Architectural Designs" was published.
Wei Yuan ( 1794 - 1857 ) the late Qing thinkers . Formerly known as far as the word silent deep , etc., Shaoyang, Hunan people . Dynasty years ( 1822 ) lifts , Daoguang 25 years ( 1845 ) into the beginning Scholars, the official Gaoyou know the state . Scholarship to statecraft for the purpose, and Gongzizhen par. Dynasty years ( 1830 ) , as the two Governor Jiang Tao and Li Salt Policy . Soon, Wei Yuan into its shogunate , to help in government, reform of water transport , Salt , water and so on. Light years ( 1832 ) , he moved to Jiangning , in Sioux City Longtan River ( now POON in the 20th ) to purchase land to build three into the cottage , called " dry lake cottage" , since the title door sales "small volume A " and in shallow water puddles built " Wan in kiosk ." In the meantime, he and when he was governor of Jiangsu Lin Tse-hsu dealings very close. Dynasty, twenty-one ( 1841 ) , by Lin Tse-hsu exhortations , with its "four state records " as the basis , also introduced the ancient annals of foreign and multi- information collected , compiled in the following year as " World records, " 50 volumes . The book was supplemented several times , to Xianfeng years ( 1852 ) the addition of 100 volumes, about 90 million words. Syria book world geography, history, introduction of western science , advanced technology, especially with regard to warships, firearms design and manufacturing technology to explore the power exteriors program , clearly stated, " learning technology to the barbarians ," the idea of later thinkers have considerable influence . His works include " Sheng Wu Ji" , " I original meaning ," " ancient micro- Hall Collection ", " Genshi New ", etc., has also compiled to assist Jiangsu governor Changling " Essays on Statecraft knitting ." People today series of " Wei set ."
Lin Zexu (1785～1850) is a minister of the Qing Dynasty and known as the national hero for Chinese people. Lin was born in Houguan (namely Fu Zhou of Fujian Province) with courtesy name Yuanfu or Shaomu or the callings like An Elder in Si Village during his later years. In JiaQing 16th year, he received the Jinshi degree and was appointed to the prestigious Hanlin Academy, promoting that knowledge should be learned from the other countries and used to the construction of our country with such people as Gong Zizhen and Wei Yuan. He was successively nominated as the governor of Jiangning and grand coordinators of Jiangsu, and the viceroy of Huguang, Shangan, Yungui. During 40 years in his official career, he was nominated twice as the governor of Jiangning province, deputy governor-general of two departments and viceroy of Liangjiang, and he went to Jiangning (now Nanjing) several times. In late November of Jiaqing 17th year (1812), Lin Zexu arrived Jiangning for the first time. He ghostwrote the memorial to the throne for then viceroy of Liangjiang Bailing and had his birthday there. At Daoguang 7th year (1827), he was promoted to the governor of Jiangning and later went back to home for his father’ death. In July of Daoguang 11th year, there were water disaster in every town of Jiangning province. He was committed to undertake the Jiangning governor from Henan. After he assumed office, he advocated twelve kinds of measures to relieve people, such as advocating donation, cooking the relief food, financing the leaving, leaving criminals to take care of the old, adopting kids, burying coffin, donating clothes, persuading to sell cereal, supporting tenant, hocking cattle, borrowing seeds and prohibiting self cooking, meanwhile, he supervised the relief matters in Jiangbei District. In October, he was transferred to the governor of water-control in east of the Yangtze River and next year was transferred to the grand coordinators of Jiangsu province (resident in Suzhou). In November of Daoguang 15th year (1835), the then viceroy of Liangjiang Taoshu was summoned by Daoguang emperor to Beijing and Lin Zexu went to Jiangning to be viceroy of Liangjiang with his own duty. Meantime, he sent out 11 memorials to the throne which were involved with grain transporting, salt tax, munitions, water conservancy and lawsuits and so on. In July of Daoguang 16th year (1836), he took charge of Liangjiang again. In Daoguang 17th (1837), he was transferred to viceroy of Huguang in Daoguang 18th (1838), as the government inspector, he went to Guangdong for banning on opium-smoking and the opium trade, and opium suppressing campaign in Humen is most famous at home and abroad. In March of Daoguang 19th year, he was transferred to take over the viceroy of Liangjiang fromTaoshu. For the opium suppressing in Guangdong, he didn't assume office. In Daoguang 20th (1840), he was the viceroy of Liangguang. After outbursting of the opium war, he strictly defended the border so that British troops could not conduct illegal activities in Guangdong. However, he was set up by the capitulate and was exiled to Yili. After the release in Daoguang 26th year (1846), he had successively held the posts of grand coordinators Shanxi and viceroy of Yungui. In Daoguang 30th year (1850), he was nominated as the government inspector to suppress the peanuts revolution in Guangxi, during the road he was dead in Puning of Guangzhou. He was given “grand mentor of the heir apparent” and the posthumous title Wenzhong. Also he was talent in writing poems and essays and had the works like “Lin Wenzhong political book” and “letter and record” and so on, and they are collected in volumes as “Lin Zexu Series”.
Sun Quan (182 —252), courtesy name Zhongmou, was born in Fuchun (the present Zhejiang Fuyang). He is the founder of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. It is said that his appearance is singular and majestic "wide forehead and big mouth, a pair of intense big eyes", he is well-educated and trained in military exercises, good at riding and shooting, "He is of justice and humanity, deals with things decisively and values chivalrous man raising many hangers-on". In Jian'an 5th year( AD 200), Sun Ce died and Sun Quan, only 18 years old, inherit the family estate occupying six towns in east of the Yangtze River. After heading the administration, he united the former subordinates of his father and brothers and recruited all celebrated scholars. He was assisted not only by people like Zhang Zhao and Zhou Yu but also by such talent as Zhuge Jin and Lu Su. So much so that the situation was stabilized and it showed his extraordinary talents. In Jian'an 13th year, he united Liu Bei and adopted the fire attack, defeated the army of Cao cao in the famous battle of the Red Cliff which lay the foundation of East Wu. In Jian'an 16th year, he decisively moved the political center from Jingkou (now Zhenjiang) to Moling (now Nanjing). On the next year, he revised Mo Ling to Jianye (now Nanjing). Later in Wei Huangchu 2nd year, he fought for Jingzhou with Liu Bei so that it would be convenient to direct the war with Shu, E town of Jingzhou (Ezhou city of Hubei province) was set as political center and the name of E town was changed by Wuchang, at the same year he was called the king of Wu kingdom. In April of Wu Huanglong 1st year (AD 229), he claimed emperor in Wuchang. After that Sun Quan changed the political center from Jianye to Wuchang, he was objected not only by the people living in the middle and lower of Yangtze River but also by the Sun and Wu regime pillar major nationality in east of Yangtze River. So in September of Wu Huanglong 1st year (AD 229), he changed the capital from Wuchang back to Jianye with determination of “achieving goals and building the foundation” there. Sun Quan lived in the house of “general who exterminates rebels” Sun Ce and named it after Palace of Beginning (the area of Xikouyushi Street Zhujiang Road). It made the history that Nanjing became the capital officially. He became the first emperor in Jinling history. He planned and build the Jianye city with perimeter of twenty miles and nineteen steps. In the capital city there are splendid palaces, government office, local-style dwelling houses, the temple and so on, it laid the foundation for the future development of Nanjing city. Outside the capital city Jianye there are a series of castles around, of which the most famous one is stone city. Inside the stone city there are stone warehouse and stone library.
In Huanglong 2nd year, Sun Quan assigned Generals Wei Wen, Zhuge Zhi to went to Yizhou with thousands of soldiers (now Taiwan) by sea strengthening the relationship between the mainland and Taiwan people. Later he assigned persons to visit Gaoli (now Korea), Funan (now Cambodia), Linyi (now the central area of Vietnam) and countries on southern Sea Islands so as to develop the relationship with the countries around. Also he took measures to develop the economy of Jianye and southern area of the Yangtze River. He "told peasants the land policy by himself" and sent eight cows driving cart to do farm work, set the agricultural officials like military officer for governing the farmland, manage the wasteland transaction and set up counties in the peaceful mountainous area. He banned the corvee for farmers by officials during the rural busy season, organized skilled manufacturing workers to conduct textile and metallurgy production in capital city Jianye and largely build the water conservancy, dredging and expand the Qinhuai river waters. In Wuchi 8th year (AD 245), Gangdu was broke and the river from Jurong southern area and eastern forward Yunyang (now Danyang in Jiangsu province) was excavated, the transportation went from Jianye along to Wu (now Suzhou) and Hui (now Shaoxing in Zhejiang province).
After Sun Quan claimed the emperor, especially in the late years, he became headstrong and didn't listen to the suggestion from ministries. He was suspicious of every official keeping away from them and conduct the cruel government to people, the burden of tax and corvee was at the top of Three Kingdoms. For the governing group, its internal contradictions intensified. Not only there was self-protection between emperor and ministries but also the fight for throne inheritance was fierce. And under extorting excessive taxes and levies, there are revolutions led by Li Huan and Luo Li from Luling and Peng Dan from Poyang and so on. In August of Wuchiwu 14th year (AD 251), he was ill for being frightened. And then it turned worse for the death of Queen Pan for failure regicide.
In April of Wutaiyuan 2nd year( AD 252), Sun Quan was dead of ill in 70 years old and buried in south of Zijin Mountain. He was respected as the great emperor after his death. His tomb was named after tomb of great emperor Wu, Sun tomb ridge and grave of emperor Wu, and now it was called tomb of Sun Quan and was set for municipality protected historic site in 1982.
Fan Li (birth and death year are both unknown) was born in Wanyi Sanhu of Chu (now Nanyang in Henan province) with courtesy name Shaobo. He was a senior official in the state of Yue in late Spring and Autumn Period. When he was young, he formally acknowledged Jiran (another name is Xinwenzi) as his master studying the polices of managing state and military affairs. Later he went to Yue from Chu, and was nominated a senior official and put in an important position by Yunchang the king of Yue. In 24th year of King ZhouJing (BC 496), Yunchang was dead and his son Goujian inherited his throne, Fan was respected as top general. In the war between Wu and Yue, Yue was badly defeated in Fujiao and Goujian was submitted to Wu for peace, and Fan was sent to Wu as the hostage. Fan supported Goujian to endure the hardships to revive and sharpen the wits; finally Yue was turned strong from weak and destroyed Wu after the hard striving of “uniting people, gathering wealth and food, rehabilitating, educating people and training soldiers for twenty years”. It was said that in 4th year of King Zhouyuan (BC473), Goujian asked Fan to build the Yue city in Jinling (now Nanjing) as the military equipment for stationing troops and defense purpose beside the Yangtze River. When choosing the castle, he offered the proposition that if the enemy is coming to fight us, we should defend rather than fight them back claiming that if taking the attack against the enemy, we need intrepid tenacious and act quickly and we would not win unless they have no morale at all, which is regarded as the strategy of hiding one's capacities and biding one's time. The castle was located at west of Guchangganli in Jinling( now outside the Zhonghua Gate) with Yuhuatai highlands in the south and Qinhuai river in the north so that it can control the tunnel from Qinhuai river to Yangtze River and was taken as an important military citadel. The perimeter of the citadel is two miles and eighty steps. It can defend the enemy from the north and taking attack to the north. It was an important strongholds for Goujian to fight against Chu and claim emperor in east of Yangtze River. In the history, the citadel is called Yue city and also named Fan Li city for that it was planned and its construction was supervised by Fan himself, moreover, he led the stationing troops. In the late years, Fan residented in Tao (now Mountain Tao of Feicheng in Shandong province). He did business and owned commercial property there and called himself as Tao Zhu Gong (Chinese: 陶朱公; pinyin: Táo Zhūgōng; literally "Lord Tao Zhu"). As 73 years old, he "died in Tao" and buried beside Mountain Tao.For Fan's life time, he owned the renown of good official for governing the state, military wizards and commercial holy father. He had the works like Experience for Raising Fish, Military Strategy and Tactics, Golden Rules of Business Success, Business Lessons from Lord Tao Zhu and so on.
Xie Lingyun (385--433) was born in Yangxia of Chen town (now Taikang in Henan province). He was a poet in Southern Song, and the grandson of Xiexuan (nephew of Xiean, General of the Eastern Jin). In Jinlongan 3rd year (AD399), in order to stay away the war caused by Sunen he came to Jiankang from Kuaiji (now Shaoxing in Zhejiang province) living in Xie's home in Wuyi Lane. When he was young, he liked study very much reading many kinds of books and he wrote the best article in Jiangzuo. In 20 years or so, Lingyun was knighted Duke of Kangle through hereditary and known as Xie Kangle. After Liu and Song replaced Jin, he was demoted from Duke to Marquis. As for the envy from powerful ministers, he assumed office as Yongjia prefecture in July of Yongchu 3th year. He didn’t deal with the civil affairs as government officials but engaged himself in traveling. Later he resigned and became a hermit in Kuaiji. He owned many good lands, digging hills and dredging lakes. In period of Songwen Emperor (Liu Yilong), he took up the post of civil official in Linchuan; however, he freed himself as before and then was impeached to transfer to Guangzhou. Meanwhile, he returned to capital Jiankang to assume privy counselor for several times. The time Xie Lingyun living was right in the period of Southern Song replacing Eastern Jin. He often claimed himself the ability of political participation but was not found so he was always full of angry. Relying on the chance of assuming the Chief outside, he resigned or said he was ill to not meet the king but loved landscape and showed his mind in poets creating a lot of poems about mountains and waters. His poems followed the creating method of his uncle Xiehun that taking the mountains and waters into the poems, which broke the situation that there was only one style in Xuanyan Poem(it is also called empty talk, the ethos of talking about nothing or famous principles popular in Wei and Jin period, it focuses on profound theories and had influenced Qi and Liang) from Eastern Jin and became the first poet who created amount of poems about mountains and waters and was respected as the founder of “mountains and waters poems”. The great poet Baozhao appreciated his Woo Poem (a poem with five characters to a line) that it looks like blooming lotus natural and lovely. Tang Huilin praised it that Xie's poems are like lotus coming into bloom. In Song Yuanjia 10th year( AD 433) of South Dynasty, Xie Lingyun was killed under the name of conspiring against the state in the chaos of dog-eat-dog and people suspecting each other. He was 48 years when he died. There were collections but scatted later, people in Ming Dynasty made Xie Kangle Collection. Most of his poems described the mountains and waters of Yongjia, Kuaijia and Mount Lu. The poems about Jiankang are that The Town on 16th July in Yongchu 3rd Year: Departing Town and Neighborhood See Me Off until Fangshan, Departing from Stone Head City.
Wu Zixu(? ～BC 484) was a minister of Wu in late Spring and Autumn period. His another name is Yuan and courtesy name is Zixu. He is the son of Wu She a senior official of Wu. When he was young, he liked art practicing martial art and he was brave with ideas. In King Zhoujing 23rd(BC 522), his father Wushe and his brother Wushang was killed by King Chuping, then he swore to destory Chu for revenge. Went through countries like Song and Zheng, he went out of Shaoguan( it is located in He town of Anhui province) to Wu. On the journey, Wu was blocked at Wujiang of Pukou but obtained help from the fishman to go through the river. Then on the side of Laishui( now Lishui), he got food from the washing woman to overcome the sufferings. After entering into Wu, he helped Ziguang( namely King of Wu Helv) to murder nobilities of Wu to obtain the throne and served sincerely, the country became stronger. Several years later, Wu's army fought into Yingdu and destory Chu so that the revenge of Wu Zixu achieved, for which he was canonized in Shen, so he was also called Shen Xu. To pay back the washing woman on the Laishui side, as passing there he tried to find and visit her home wishing to give her some gold without results, so threw the gold into the river. So the place is named Gold-threw Lai. In King Wu Fuchai Period, Wu Zixu persuaded the king to refuse the peace plead of Yue and stop fight with Qi. For instigation by Bopi, he was estranged and later Fuchai demanded him to take the sword to commit suicide.
Lu Ji (261～303) was an artist of West Jin. He was born in Huating Wu town of Wu shire( now Songjiang in Shanghai province) and his courtesy name is Shiheng, his grandfather is Lu Xun and father is Lu Kang both of which are famous generals in Eastern Wu. He was famous in Wu for that he was talent when young, writing good articles, and did not do things that violate Confucianism. He lived beside the Qinhuai River and is called Two Lu together with his younger brother Lu Yun. After the death of his father Lu Kang, he and his brother led his father’s troops as directors. When Wu was perished, he lived in hometown Huating keeping studying and lived in seclusion for ten years. In Western Jin Taikang 9th year( AD 288), he received the orders that making officials out of the talent and went up to Luoyang with his brother Lu Yun. His literary talent shocked the whole world. He took the position of interpreter, Pingyuan (now southern area of Shangdong Plain) civil official and so on. In the "unrest of eight Kings", under the command of Chengdu King Sima Ying, Lu Ji led troops to fight against Changsha King Sima but failed and killed by Sima Ying. Lu Ji is genius talent and use splendid words and he is the representive writer of Taikang Literature. His poems are full of colors and focus on parallelism and antithesis in spite of too much empty words. His greatest achievement lays in odes, the works like Ode in Passing, Eulogy for King Wu of Wei kingdom are written touching and moving. Ode without antithesis is the work made by Lu Ji based on his writing experience for many years, in which it states writing conceptions, advantage and disadvantage for the article and so on. It involved many fields and innovative ideas. Compared with On discussion of Essays of Cao Pi, it has new development and profound influence in the ancient article discussion history. The descendants made the Collection of Liu Shiheng.
Wang Shiduo( 1802- 1889) was called Assistant Wang, at first his name is Ao and his courtesy name is Zhen'an or Jinhou, another name is Meicun and he used Meiweng in his late years. He was born in Jiangning and he was a scholar and a theorist on population. In Daoguang 20th year (1840 ) Gengzi year, he became provincial graduate in the village, during the next ten years, he took the examinations from Ministry of Rites four times but failed. After Xianfeng 9th year( 1859), he successively took the position of advisors for Hubei grand coordinators Hu Linyi and Viceroy of Liangjiang directly involved the design of the military plan to attack Taiping Heaven Kingdom. Inspect of population theory, he claimed that there were too much people so that there were no enough farmlands, no skills need people, God became powerless, people can‘t survive. He thought that the population is too big so that the talent became fewer and argued that the population should be reduced by brutal means like drown the female baby, kill whole family, suppress peasant uprising, ban the widowed to be remarried and encourage people to be monks and nuns. In Tongzhi 3rd year(1864 ), after Qing army fought into Nanjing, Wang Shiduo returned to home. He lived in warehouse in west of the city and then moved to Jinshajing in South. In Tongzhi 13rd year, the magistrate of Shangyuan County Mo Xiangzhi and Jiangning County Gan Shaopan advocated to write the two counties’ annals, he was employed as the general editor and told to complete it in October. In the two counties’ annals, there is a chapter of military affairs from Xianfeng 3rd year to now, it is the only official record about Taiping Heaven Kingdoms activities, which provided the precious information for the research. In Guangxu 6th year(1880), the magistrate of a prefecture in Jiangning Jiang Qixun continued to edit the Jiangning annals, he was employed as general editor to fix (Guangxu) Continued Jiangning Annals. Wang Shiduo is a historiographer at all, his subsidies were the temporal outstanding persons, they strictly stated the examples, got rid of irrelevant things and remained historical information and sought for reasonable evidence. It is suitable to call him one of the excellent officials who edit the annals. In Guangxu 10th year, provincial education commissioner Huang Tifang recommended him in name of an experienced scholar and he was added the Imperial College assistant title according the imperial edict. Wang Shiduo has been famous in Nanjing literature for more than 60 years, and he had high and deep academic attainments. In Guangxu 15th year( 1889), Wang Shiduo died in 87 years old. He had abundant works in his life amounting hundreds of thousands words. The main works are "Rites of Dressing Etiquette", "Reference to Etiquette and Ceremonial Noted by Zheng", "Complement Collection of Commentary on the Water Classic", "Reference to Guang Rhyme and Sound" and "State and Shire Annals of Liang and Chen", "East Han Chronological Table", "The Kept Bibliography", " Reference to HanYu's Poetry Gaiden". They are all missing. The works still in existence are "North and South History Complement Notes", " Emoticons of Commentary on the Water Classic", "Meiweng’s Collection", "Meiweng’s Copy of Poems", "Meiweng’s Copy of Ci", "Meiweng’s Notes" (of which the two parts "Essay on YiMao", "prop-Chen Memorandum on BingChen", which were cut out, photocopied and issued by the descendants with title with "YiBing Diary". In the books there are many affairs involved Taiping Heaven Kingdom and they are paid high attention by modern people. Also there are population issues, it is the work that talks much about the population problems in Chinese history. His hometown is located in Jinshajing Qinhuai District of Nanjing city.